Health is a resource of development of a country. Health hazard is one of the alarming problems for the people living in far-flung and inaccessible areas of northeast India. Until today, there is inadequate modern health care facilities and health infrastructure in many rural areas of northeast India. Whereas the practice of traditional health care to cure diseases as their ancestors followed are concerns of majority of the people living in the region. The tribal communities of northeast India occupy a unique position in India due to distinctive culture, historical and sociodemographic factors. In today's context, it has become vital to explore the socio-cultural dimensions of health, to understand the practice and effectiveness of their concept of health, illness, disease causation and mode of treatment especially among the tribal communities. The present paper attempts to explore the scope of anthropology in health culture research especially among the tribes of northeast India.