Assessing the Potential Effects of Selected Kenyan Medicinal Plants on Longevity of Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae)

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Health Sciences,2013,3,1,648-653.
Published:February 2013
Type:Research Articles
Author(s) affiliations:

Mong'are samuel1,*, Ng'ang'a Zipporah2, Maranga Rosebella1, Osiemo Zipporah1, Ngure Peter3, Ngumbi Philip4, Mutai Charles4, Karanja Robert4, Ireri Laban5, Tonui Willy6

1Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya. 

2Institute of Tropical Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Nairobi, Kenya. 

3Daystar University, Nairobi, Kenya. 

4Kenya Medical Research Institute, KEMRI, Nairobi, Kenya. 

5Division of Vector Borne and Neglected Tropical Diseases, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Embu, Kenya. 

6National Biosafety Authority, Kenya.


Phlebotomus duboscqi (Diptera: Psychodidae) has been incriminated as the vector of Leishmania major, the causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in various parts of the world. This study sought to describe the influence of Tarchonanthus camphoratus (Asteraceae), Acalypha fruticosa (Euphorbiaceae) and Tagetes minuta (Asteraceae) crude extracts on longevity of Phlebotomus duboscqi. These medicinal plants were prepared from the dried aerial parts followed by grinding into a fine powder and then soaking the plant materials in methanol and ethyl acetate solvents for 48 hrs. After 48 hrs, the materials were filtered and dried out using a rotary evaporation at 30-35°C. The extracts obtained were later prepared into appropriate concentrations for bioassay. Groups of ten female sand flies were aspirated into vials where they were fed on a mixture of the plant extracts and sucrose solution. The crude extracts reduced the survival time of P. duboscqi significantly (P<0.05). It was found out that P. duboscqi flies that had fed on A. fruticosa extract had a life span of 7 days, T. minuta 7 days and T. camphoratus 9 days as compared to a life span of 12 days in P. duboscqi flies that formed the control group. The observation that A. fruticosa, T. minuta and T. camphoratus have effect on longevity of P. duboscqi implies that these plants can be used as a natural means of reducing transmission of leishmaniasis by reducing the life span of Phlebotomus duboscqi eventually killing them.

Longevity of P. duboscqi after feeding on the methanol crude extracts of A. fruticosa, T. minuta and T. camphoratus