Proteomics is the large-scale and extensive study of proteins, which are the vital components in the physiological and metabolic pathways of living cells. The aim of the present work is to study the various trends in proteomics especially 2- Dimensional, Differential Gel Electrophoresis and Mass spectroscopy. 2-Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Mass Spectroscopy are the main tools which are used in the Proteomics field. 2- Dimensional gel electrophoresis is used for the separation of proteins from a group of proteins on the basis of their molecular weight and isoelectric pH. Mass spectrometry determines the molecular masses of proteins and peptides, as well as small pharmaceutical molecules, and defines their structural features based on analyses of MS data by bioinformatics database methods. Various techniques used in the proteomics field were studied. The role of proteomics in biomarker discovery, target identification and drug discovery were also studied. The use of proteomics in finding out the mechanism of drug action and presence of chemical warfare agents in the body were also taken into consideration. The use of latest sophisticated instruments, software and databases has revolutionized the field of proteomics. The knowledge about the various challenges and trends in this field has enlightened the future proteomics. From the present study we were able to conclude that the importance of proteomics in our biological life has tremendously changed in the recent years, thus making it an important tool in disease diagnosis and drug discovery.
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